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Hibernate Architecture



Hibernate is a middleware used for object-relational mapping and for performing efficient object persistence. To understand about the architecture of Hibernate, let's first take a look at how Hibernate fits in the development of an application, between an application and the database server.



For the reference, please look at the diagram below :






The architecture of Hibernate comprises of a few important interfaces. Let's discuss these interfaces and what exactly they are used for.



Configuration


The Configuration object is used to configure the Hibernate. This is the first object we use when using Hibernate. This object is used to specify the location of mapping documents and some properties of Hibernate. Using Configuration object we can create a SessionFactory object, which is eventually used to create a Session object to perform the object persistence operations.



The Hibernate interfaces that are used by the applications to perform the create, read, update, delete(CRUD) operations and querying the database are Session, Transaction and Query.



Session


Session interface is the main Hibernate interface used by the applications. Session object is lightweight and can be easily created or destroyed without overburdening the system resources. Session object is not thread-safe, hence it should not be used by multiple threads at one time. Session interface is mainly used for performing persistence operations like storing and retrieving the objects in and out of the database.


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SessionFactory


To obtain the Session object, we have to use the SessionFactory interface. SessionFactory object is heavyweight and performance-wise, there should be only one object of SessionFactory used by the whole application because it takes a lot of resources to create. A SessionFactory object can be shared by the multiple threads.



Transaction


Transaction interface allow you to make all the operations on the persisted object within a single transaction. During the execution of this single transaction, any error between the start and the end of transaction leads to the cancellation of whole transaction and giving back the persisted object their original state(before the beginning of transaction), thus helping maintaining the integrity of database.



Query


Query interface allows to query the database and also allows you to control how these queries are going to be executed. In Hibernate, queries are either written using Hibernate Query Language(HQL) or SQL. Query interface binds the parameters sent within a query, controls the number of results returned by the execution of query and execute the query.



Callback Interfaces


Hibernate interfaces that allow an application to respond to the events performed by Hibernate, events such as saving, retrieving, updating, deleting the object. These interfaces are Inteceptor, Lifecycle and Validatable and together they are also known as Callback Interfaces.




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